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Cogging Torque Computation and Mesh for Non-radial Electrical Motors in Flux®

All electrical motor designers know that the computation of cogging torque is a tricky task, particularly in 3D. Indeed, the amplitude of this variable is almost the same as numerical noise. In most cases, conventional mesh methodology is not sufficient and specific methodology must be used. At CEDRAT, thanks to its experience, the application team has developed methodologies to successfully compute cogging torque in most cases. This article presents a specific mesh methodology to compute cogging torque for 3D non-radial electrical motors.

Comparative Study of Concentrated and Distributed Winding Using Flux®

The paper presents a comparative study of 3-phase permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous machines (PMSM) with concentrated and distributed windings. The purpose of this study is to identify the machine that gives the better electromagnetic performance (torque, efficiency, back electromotive force…). Two PMSM with concentrated and distributed windings having identical output power, stator and rotor outer diameter, airgap, axial length, are designed. Machine performance of the two machines is compared using finite element analysis (Flux 2D).

FE Steady State Thermal Analysis of Squirrel Cage Induction Motors with Flux®

The thermal analysis of electrical machines and the related fluid dynamic computation, tasks associated with mechanical engineering disciplines, seem to interest electrical engineers less than electromagnetic analysis. But, with increasing requirements to fully exploit new designs and materials, it has more or less become compulsory to analyze the thermal behavior of electrical machines, to the same degree as electromagnetic design.

Checking Remanence Issues with New Hysteresis Model

Remanence is what is left when all current is removed, and there is still some flux density left in the iron core. This is often the case with a close path for flux density, especially in U or E shape devices. To get rid of this effect, it is sometimes useful to add a so-called remanent airgap. This paper explains what we have incorporated into Flux to model this effect due to hysteresis.

Taking Demagnetization into Account in Permanent Magnets Using Flux®

Materials can be classified according to their magnetic property into two main categories: Soft magnetic materials: which exhibit magnetic properties with the presence of external excitation. Hard magnetic materials: exhibit magnetic properties in the absence of magnetic excitation. Permanent magnets are part of this family.

Induction Heating and Forced Cooling Analysis with Flux®

Principle of induction heating and forced cooling (shower): induction heating is the process of heating an electrically conducting object without contact. The flowing of the current through the coil (see Fig.1) generates an alternating magnetic field. This field induces current in the electric conductor (eddy current). The repartition of eddy current depends on the shape of the electric conductor, the frequency, and physical properties of the material used in the electric conductor. In addition to this, the high frequency used in induction heating applications gives rise to a phenomenon called skin effect: all the current is concentrated only on the boundaries.

Regulate Current with User Subroutine Using Groovy Language in Flux®

For Switched Reluctance Motor, a specific command of current is often used with a chopper in order to decrease the current ripple or hysteresis band. We propose to see in this example (see Figure 1) how to implement such a command in Flux using groovy language.

Finite Elements Method Modeling of Contactless Energy Transfer Systems

Contactless energy transfer (CET) systems are used in many industrial sectors. These include conveyors, trolleys, storage and retrieval units, baggage handling, battery charging stations, mobile phones and medical implants. The energy transfer model is quite similar to a conventional transformer, except for the weak coupling between the primary and secondary windings and partial or non-existent ferromagnetic closing paths. Inductive coupling is commonly used in a range from a few mW to a few hundred kW.

Cogging Torque Computation and Meshing for Radial Electrical Motors in Flux®

All electrical motor designers know that the computation of cogging torque is a tricky task in 3D. Indeed, the amplitude of this quantity is almost the same as the numerical noise. In most cases, a classical meshing methodology is not sufficient and specific methodology must be used. At CEDRAT, the application team, thanks to its experience has developed methodologies to successfully compute cogging torque in most of cases. This article presents a specific meshing methodology to compute cogging torque for 2D and 3D radial electrical machine. It begins with some general recommendation concerning the definition of the geometry in order to facilitate the meshing operation. Then, it presents the specific meshing methodology applied to a 2D SPM motor and to a 3D IPM motor.

How to Efficiently Design Power Transformers

Nowadays Power Transformers need to optimize their efficiency to make sure a minimum amount of losses are generated from the various physical phenomena. Flux Finite Element studies allow transformer designers to accurately analyze the different losses (Joule losses, iron losses, stray losses) to enhance the performance of their transformers. A few steady-state and transient tests permit determining the electrical and mechanical constraints that the power transformer will have to endure in its life. In addition, thermal studies can complete these analyses to detect and prevent hot spots on the tank or in the windings.

Eccentricities Faults Magnetic Signature of an Induction Machine Determined with Flux®

In the literature we can find two approaches to make diagnosis: Model approach - a specific method for automation engineers. Depending on the mechanism adopted, we can distinguish three branches in this method: monitoring by observers, by analytical redundancy and by parametric estimation. Signal approach - this approach is based on measurable signals data, such as current, torque, stray flux, noise and vibration, temperature. The principle of this method is to look for frequencies unique to the healthy or fault operation. Faults in electrical rotating machines can induce other phenomena such as noise and vibrations and possibly other faults like friction between the stator and the rotor or accelerated wear of insulations.

Study of Mounted Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Using Flux® Skew

Requirements: rotating electrical machine designers want high-reliability, minimum power losses, maximum power, maximum torque and low mechanical resonance vibration and noise. To meet the needs of electrical machine designers, CEDRAT started developing tools that take Skew into account in 2003. Several improvements have been made to this tool. Skew is usually accounted for by sub-dividing the active length of the machine into several 2D slices. In the latest Skew version of Flux the post processing is directly a full 3D post-processing.

Tutorial: HW & Anaglyph Laminate Tools Integration

This document provides step-by-step instructions on how to use Anaglyph Laminate Tools within HyperWorks.

Speeding up Altair OptiStruct* Simulations with the Intel® SSD Data Center Family for PCIe*

Altair OptiStruct* provides engineers and designers with a unified solution from concept to final design by leveraging advanced analysis capabilities and novel, optimization-driven simulation. In this process, the simulation time for one optimization iteration is a critical consideration, since it affects the computational speed and scalability of the entire design process.

White Paper: One Source Solution for Short-Fiber Reinforced Materials in FEA

With use of today’s technology, FE simulation of the injection molding process is state of the art. Several unique solvers are available for this purpose. However, an appropriate coupling between the injection molding simulation and the mechanical simulation is required.

ESAComp 4.6 Release Notes

Highlights and new features in the latest release of ESAComp 4.6 from Componeering.

White Paper: How to Digitalize Effectively for IoT

Internet of Things (IoT) is starting to mature and organisations across many sectors are facing the challenges of scaling up from small, trial deployments and proof of concepts into mainstream, high volume consumer deployments.

White Paper: Minimization of Forming Load of Gear Driver Forging Process with AFDEX and HyperStudy

In this paper, a workflow is presented that integrates the functionalities of a metal forming simulation software, AFDEX and a multidisciplinary optimization software, HyperStudy. Using this approach, the forming load of a gear driver used in an automotive transmission is minimized and two die design parameters are optimized.

OptiStruct is 17x faster with the latest Dell Precision Workstation

The reduction of run times up to 17X is a direct result of more powerful hardware and the more advanced algorithms in Altair’s latest software releases.

Whitepaper: A Design-Validation-Production Workflow for Aerospace Additive Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing coupled with topology optimization allows the design-and-analysis and manufacturing iterations to be reduced significantly, or even eliminated. To ensure that the part will perform as simulated, a mid-stage validation is conducted on a standardized part before creating the final products.

Dynamic Analysis of Riser Release and Lowering

S. Atluri, N. Liu, A. Sablok, and T. Weaver

Vortex Induced Vibration Analysis of a Complex Subsea Jumper

S. Holmes, and Y. Constantinides

VIV Prediction of a Truss Spar Pull-Tube Array Using CFD

Y. Constantinides, S. Holmes, and W. Yu

CFD Based Hydrodynamic Databases for Wake Interference Assessment

D. Corson, S. Cosgrove, P. Hays, Y. Constantinides , O. Oakley, H. Mukundan, and M. Leung

Numerical Wave Tank Analysis of Wave Run-Up On a Truncated Vertical Cylinder

J. Kin, S.Cosgrove, R. Jaiman, and J. O’Sullivan.

Global-Local Analysis Using StressCheck, HyperMesh, HyperView and OptiStruct

This whitepaper describes the workflow for combining global and local analysis in structural development using StressCheck in combination with HyperWorks.

Design-Optimization of a Curved Layered Composite Panel Using Efficient Laminate Parameterization

In this paper, presented at the 2016 SAMPE Long Beach Conference, an aircraft door surround model is optimized with respect to the objectives and constraints typical for this type of component using HyperStudy and ESAComp.

A Design-Validation-Production Workflow for Aerospace Additive Manufacturing

There is a lot of hype these days regarding Additive Manufacturing (AM) or 3D Printing. Are companies seriously looking at this technology to make real parts for actual applications? For the aerospace industry, the hype is starting to become more real.

Automated Parameter Tuning for Optimized Vehicle Dynamics

This paper, which was presented at the 2015 Americas ATC, demonstrates a workflow between HyperStudy, CarSim and solidThinking Compose.

The Art & Science Behind Manufacturing

Do you ever think about all the work that lies behind developing almost everything in the world around us? This article reflects on the tremendous effect the manufacturing process has on everything we use in our daily lives.

Brake Noise Prediction Using Altair Multi-body Simulation

The level of noise transmitted to the passengers of a vehicle can drastically impact a passenger’s comfort. Brake noise will give the customer an impression of poor product quality and can thus damage the quality image of the company. Within the automotive industry, the study of mode coupling instability by the use of FEM and modal complex analysis is widespread to reduce this phenomenon.

RADIOSS and MADYMO Coupling Tutorial

This document explains how to set up a RADIOSS coupling model using a MADYMO dummy model.

Design and optimization of a high performance C-Class catamaran with HyperWorks

Reprint of the article published on composite solutions magazine 2/2016.

Benchmark of HyperStudy Optimization Algorithms

The objective of this paper is to assess several optimization algorithms in HyperStudy for their effectiveness and efficiency. The following sections of this paper present an overview of the optimization algorithms frequently used in HyperStudy. This is followed by benchmarking of both single objective and multi-objective optimization problems, respectively.

Slotted Waveguide Array

The slotted waveguide array is a popular choice for use in radar systems due to its mechanical robustness, compactness and ability to handle high power levels.

Printed Ka-band Reflectarrays with Offset Feed

Printed reflectarrays combine the advantages of parabolic reflector antennas with microstrip arrays, yielding high-gain, low-profile, low-cost antennas with simpler feeds that are easy to fabricate. This white paper demonstrates how FEKO can be used to model a printed reflectarray and its feed.

Benchmark Study: Optimizing High Fidelity Crash & Safety Simulation Performance

Cray, Intel and Altair have collaborated to analyze crash and safety simulation performance that provides engineers the power, speed and accuracy needed for their design analysis.

FEKO Integrated in HyperWorks 14.0

Altair’s computer-aided engineering (CAE) simulation software platform for simulation-driven innovation is Hyper- Works, which includes modeling, visualization, analysis and optimization technologies and solutions for structural, impact, electromagnetics, thermal, fluid, systems and manufacturing applications. The electromagnetics solver suite in HyperWorks is FEKO, a comprehensive electromagnetic analysis software used to solve a broad range of electromagnetic problems. It includes a set of hybridized solvers, giving the possibility to combine methods to solve complex and electrically large problems, with all solvers included in the same package.

Electromagnetic Design in the Electronic Industry

Technology advancement in the electronic industry is unyielding, but new trends will build on RF communications to drive new product functionality. Some examples include the Internet of Things (IoT), 5G mobile networks and automation/smart technology.

Intel Solution Brief: Altair and Simulation-Driven Design

Altair and Intel offer a simple, cost-effective on-ramp to a complete simulation-driven design platform. This paper describes joint offerings including HPC and CAE in the public cloud.

Seat Design for Crash in the Cloud - NAFEMS World Congress 2015

The benefit of design exploration and optimization is understood and accepted by engineers but the required intensive computational resources have been a challenge for their adoption into the design process. The HyperWorks Unlimited (HWUL) appliance provides an effective solution to these challenges as it seamlessly connects all the necessary tools together in the cloud. The aim of this study is to showcase the benefits of HWUL on an optimization driven design of a complex system. For this purpose an automotive seat design for crash loadcases is selected.

Tanker Truck Sloshing Simulation Using Bi-directionally Coupled CFD and Multi-Body Dynamics Solvers

In this work, the multi-disciplinary problem arising from fluid sloshing within a partially filled tanker truck undergoing lateral acceleration is investigated through the use of multiphysics coupling between a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and a multi-body dynamics (MBD) solver. This application represents a challenging test case for simulation technology within the design of commercial vehicles and is intended to demonstrate a novel approach in the field of computer aided engineering.

Fluid - Structure Interaction Analysis and Optimization of an Automotive Component

This paper discusses the behavior of a flexible flap at the rear end of a generic car model under aerodynamic loads. A strong bidirectional coupling between the flap’s deflection and the flow field exists which requires this system to be simulated in a coupled fluid-structure manner.

ESAComp Tip: How to Easily Find Materials

This document provides a step by step guide on how to apply the search function to find suitable materials for a given project.

Efficient Design and Analysis of Airborne Radomes

Computer Simulation's Role in Advancing Composite Aircraft Structures

Reprint of an article published on the December 2014 issue of Aerospace & Defense Technology magazine

Optimization Drive Design - A Desktop Engineering Sponsored Report

Optimize every stage of product development with an integrated workflow that democratizes simulation and analysis. In this Desktop Engineering sponsored report Altair's vision for product optimization is analyzed

Optimizing Cooling Passages in Turbine Blades

Turbine blades have internal passages that provide cooling during operation in a high temperature engine. The design of the cooling passages is critical to achieve near uniform temperature of the blade during operation. The temperature of the blade is dependent on the thermal properties of the blade material as well as the fluid dynamics of the air circulating in the cooling passages. Computational optimization methods have successfully been applied to design lighter and more efficient structures for many aerospace structures. An extension of these techniques is now applied to guiding the thermal design of a turbine blade by designing the optimal cooling passage layout. Optimization methods will be applied to determine the optimum pattern of the cooling passages and then to optimize the size of the individual cooling passages. The goal is to produce a more thermally efficient turbine blade design that will produce blades with longer lives and better performance.

Benchmark Study: Optimized Drop Testing with Dell, Intel and Altair

Dell, Intel and Altair have collaborated to analyze a virtual drop test solution with integrated simulation and optimization analysis, delivering proven gains in speed and accuracy.

Improving the Design of Subsea Riser Systems A Cray-Altair Solution for Improved Oil & Gas Component Engineering

With Cray and Altair, engineers have the computational systems they need to perform advanced subsea computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with better speed, scalability and accuracy. With Altair’s AcuSolve CFD solver running on Cray® XC30™ supercomputer systems, operators and engineers responsible for riser system design and analysis can increase component life, reduce uncertainty and improve the overall safety of their ultra-deep-water systems while still meeting their demanding development schedule.

Weld Distortion Optimisation using HyperStudy

Distortion induced in parts due to the cooling of welds complicates automated manufacturing lines in the automotive industry. The resulting deformation leads to additional investment such as end of line machining to correct affected assemblies. Utilising optimisation software a welding pattern can be found which retains the intended performance of a part while reducing the distortion induced from welding. Weld locations may be optimised alongside welding sequence to allow process requirements to be considered within the early design stage. This leads to high performance, low distortion assemblies which can ultimately be manufactured at the lowest possible cost.

Using PBS Professional Hooks: Examples and Benefits

This paper examines practical uses of the PBS Professional® hook mechanism, to help achieve site requirements, based on experiences at The University of Queensland Research Computing Centre. The paper includes descriptions of several real-world applications for job submission hooks (qsub_hook) and includes example code to help commence implementation of a generic hook able to handle both job submission and job modification events.

Schlumberger Eclipse Integration White Paper and How-To Guide

The Schlumberger ECLIPSE software family offers the industry’s most complete and robust set of reservoir simulation software. In response to user requests, Altair has collaborated with Schlumberger to deliver a tightly integrated version of ECLIPSE for PBS Professional. This paper documents the integration and provides step-by-step instructions for configuration and use.

Daimler - Calculation of Optimal Damping Placement in a Vehicle Interior

One of the most difficult jobs of a NVH Analyst is to sift through a seemingly endless set of results and find the key conclusions that will improve a design. Different assumptions and different subsets of data can give very different conclusions. This paper compares acoustic results calculated for a Class 8 heavy duty truck cab to choose an optimal configuration of damping material. The design was evaluated for structure and air-borne inputs, but only structure-borne inputs are considered in this paper.

Applications of Advanced Composite Simulation and Design Optimization

Usage of fiber reinforced composite material entered an new era when leading aircraft OEMs took an unprecedented step to design and manufacture essentially full composite airframe for commercial airliners. Composite structures offer unmatched design potential as the laminate material properties can be tailored almost continuously throughout the structure. However, this increased design freedom also brings new challenges for the design process and software. Moreover, as a relatively new material, composite behaviors are more complex and less fully understood by design engineers. Therefore, reliable simulation for highly complex events like bird strike and ditching can play an important role in shortening the product design cycle. This paper showcases two area of CAE tools for composite applications. On advanced simulation, bird strike simulation with Altair RADIOSS [1] is demonstrated on an aircraft underbelly fairing. On design optimization, an airplane wing structure is designed using an innovative composite optimization process implemented in Altair OptiStruct [1-3]. OptiStruct has seen increasing adoption among aerospace OEMs, as demonstrated in the Bombardier application process described in this paper.

Scheduling Jobs onto Intel® Xeon Phi™ using PBS Professional

Working closely with Intel, Altair has ensured that PBS Professional supports the Intel® Xeon Phi™ architecture targeting high performance computing applications. This paper describes the basic and advanced configurations of PBS Professional for scheduling jobs onto Intel Xeon Phi devices. <br> <a href="http://www.pbsworks.com/ResLibSearchResult.aspx?keywords=PBS%20Configuration%20Toolkit%20for%20Intel%20Xeon%20Phi:%20Download"><font color="#0099cc">PBS users: Download the toolkit to automate configuration of PBS for a Xeon Phi environment</font></a>

PBS Professional Utilizes Intel Cluster Checker to Validate the Health of an HPC Cluster

On clusters that are Intel® Cluster Ready (ICR) certified, PBS Professional can utilize Intel® Cluster Checker for gathering real-time information about the cluster at the very moment a job has been scheduled. Using this immediate feedback, PBS Professional can ensure that a job is only being executed on a cluster that has passed a check by Intel Cluster Checker.

A Practical Analysis of Unsteady Flow Around a Bicycle Wheel, Fork and Partial Frame Using CFD

CFD is used to study air flow around a rotating bicycle wheel in contact with the ground, extending previous ‘wheel-only’ work on this problem by including the fork, head tube, top tube, down tube, caliper and brake pads. Unsteady simulations, using a Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) turbulence model, were run for 9 different wheel and front fork configurations, over 10 different operating conditions (5 yaw angles, repeated for two different speeds, commonly encountered by cyclists), resulting in 90 transient design points.

An Aerodynamic Study of Bicycle Wheel Performance Using CFD

A methodology is presented to apply CFD to study air flow around a rotating bicycle wheel in contact with the ground. The bicycle wheel studied here is an accurate geometrical representation of a commercial racing wheel (Zipp 404). Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) results are computed at a range of speeds and yaw angles commonly encountered by cyclists. Drag and side (or lift) forces are resolved and compare favorably to experimental results obtained from wind tunnel tests. Vertical forces acting on a rotating bicycle wheel are presented for the first time. A unique transition from downward to upward acting force is observed as the yaw angle is increased. Flow structures are identified and compared for different yaw angles. It is expected that a more complete comprehension of these results will lead to improvements in the performance and handling characteristics of bicycle racing wheels used by professional cyclists and triathletes.

A Comparative Aerodynamic Study of Commercial Bicycle Wheels Using CFD

A CFD methodology is used to study the performance of several commercial bicycle wheels over a range of speeds and yaw angles. The wheels studied in this work include the Rolf Sestriere, HED H3 TriSpoke, the Zipp 404, 808 and 1080 deep rim wheels and the Zipp Sub9 disc wheel. Wheels are modeled at speeds of 20mph and 30mph, in contact with the ground, using Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS). Drag, vertical and side (or lift) forces are reported for each wheel. Turning moments are also calculated using the resolved side forces to examine aspects of stability and maneuverability. Drag and side forces over the range of yaw angles studied compare favorably to experimental wind tunnel results. The previously reported unique transition from downward to upward acting vertical force on the Zipp 404 wheel for increasing yaw angles is observed for all deep rim wheels and the disc wheel studied here. Wheels were also modeled at a critical yaw angle of 10 degrees using Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) to examine the transient aspects of flows around moving bicycle wheels. It is hoped that a more complete comprehension of these results will lead to improvements in performance, safety and control of bicycle racing wheels used by amateur and professional cyclists and triathletes.

Operational Numerical Weather Prediction Job Scheduling at the Petascale

Several operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers will approach a petaflop of peak performance by early 2012 presenting several system operation challenges. An evolution in system utilization strategies along with advanced scheduling technologies are needed to exploit these breakthroughs in computational speed while improving the Quality of Service (QoS) and system utilization rates. The Cray XE6™ supercomputer in conjunction with Altair PBS Professional® provides a rich scheduling environment designed to support and maximize the specific features of the Cray architecture.

An Integrated Approach to Workload and Cluster Management: The HP CMU PBS Professional Connector

This paper describes the integration between Altair’s PBS Professional and HP’s Insight Cluster Management Utility (CMU), explaining how the concept of a “connector “unites these two tools to simplify cluster setup and job execution, and providing instructions for performing key PBS Professional tasks within Insight CMU. <a href="http://www.pbsworks.com/PBSProductGT.aspx?n=PBS-Professional&c=Overview-and-Capabilities&d=PBS-Professional-and-HP-Insight-CMU">Click here</a> to access more CMU resources.

Scheduling Jobs onto NVIDIA Tesla GPU Computing Processors using PBS Professional

With the advent of the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) as a general-purpose computing unit, more and more customers are moving towards GPU-based clusters to run their scientific and engineering applications. This model allows users to use a CPU and GPU together in a heterogeneous computing model, where the sequential part of the application runs on the CPU and the computationally-intensive part runs on the GPU.

Hawk T Mk2 - Arrestor Barrier (BAN MK2) Engagement Analysis

As the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) Design Authority for Aircraft Arrestor Barrier Nets, AmSafe products are used to stop aircraft from over-running the end of the runway. The British Arrestor Net (BAN) Mk2 is suspended across the runway over-run area by two electrically driven stanchions and raised or lowered by remote control from the Air Traffic Control tower. This paper describes the process and results of a FE analysis of the engagement of the Hawk T Mk2 aircraft into a Type A Barrier (BAN Mk2). The analysis was performed using RADIOSS, an advanced non-linear explicit Finite Element solver.

Evolutionary Design in Chassis Technology

This paper details the use of the Thyssenkrupp eDICT process for the design of sheet metal chassis components. eDICT (evolutionary design in chassis technology) is an innovative structured process flow for the design of optimal structures. eDICT uses the optimisation capability of Optistruct with a set of custom tools to guide and translate a design into a production feasible sheet metal solution. Fundamentally it reverses the usual design loop of CAD first then CAE assessment. The function is used to determine the design and the form follows. On recent projects eDICT has produced 25% mass reductions compared to the current series design. eDICT is also able to reduce development times and resource with an efficient solution production right from the outset.

Automotive Modal Testing Support and CAE Correlation Using Altair HyperWorks

To derive the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a given structure, the test Engineer has to decide on excitation positions that will efficiently excite all the modes of the structure in the frequency range of interest. Excitation positions are usually decided upon from experience or trial and error methods which can be time consuming and still not capture all of the modes in the selected frequency range. Using Altair HyperStudy and Radioss (bulk), Pre-test CAE analysis has been carried out to identify effective excitation positions before the commencement of modal testing, thereby significantly reducing pre-test lab time.

Composite Optimisation of a Formula One Front Wing

This paper will show the application of a 3-stage approach to designing the optimum composite structure for a front wing on a Formula One car using Altair OptiStruct 9.0 Continual development of aerodynamic components is normal practice in the world of Formula One and the time taken to respond is paramount if a team is to be competitive.

The CAE Driven Safety Development Process of the New Ford Fiesta

The new Fiesta is about premium feel of a larger car, delivers a new level of safety, driving quality and efficiency. The new Fiesta will be a great contribution towards sustainability and cost effective motoring. The first thing to notice is the design, but the vehicle performance and body structure attribute behaviour are the specific highlights to point out in this presentation. The attribute performance is not based on coincidences; the performance is a result of state of the art engineering work. Especially the safety performance in EuroNCAP.

Delivering Innovation and Intelligence in Product Design

Packaging designers must constantly inject innovations to attract consumers in a constantly evolving and highly competitive market. Keeping ahead of the competition by bringing new and exciting products to market faster whilst maintaining quality, presents a major engineering challenge. A new packaging development process is described, which introduces advanced automated simulation and optimization technology right from the concept development phase. Detailed predictions of primary, secondary and tertiary packaging performance are made possible through use of advanced simulation technology. Design optimization is then employed using the modelling as a virtual testing ground for design variants. The approach provides clear design direction, an opportunity for wider experimentation, helps to improve performance and reduces uncertainty in the development process.

HUMOS - An FE Model for Advanced Safety and Comfort Assessments

Biomechanics modelling is becoming increasingly accepted as a tool for enhance assessment of vehicle safety, in particular in the field of injury assessment and virtual testing. Firstly, a generic RADIOSS model for safety applications (HUMOS2) is presented and applications are demonstrated. Important tools associated with the scaling, and positioning of the model is also described. Secondly, an innovative model for scaling of human organs (individualization) is presented. The method which employs optimization techniques, identifies critical (optimal) anatomical control points which allow for a best scaled model of the HUMOS2 representing an individual. Finally, some remaining challenges for future human models are discussed and solution paths are described.

Targeting Composite Wing Performance – Optimising the Composite Lay-Up Design

This paper shows how Altair OptiStruct, part of the HyperWorks suite, is used to provide a complete solution when designing with laminated composites, taking the design through concept stages to producing the final ply lay-up sequence. The technology is applied to the design of a laminated wing cover to produce a mass optimised design which meets the requested structural targets.

Application of Optimisation Tools to the Design of Advanced Carbon Fibre Bicycle: FACTOR 001

FACTOR 001 is the result of a creative project by BERU f1systems to explore the transfer of design approaches, technology and materials from Formula One to a groundbreaking training bicycle. The design brief did not require the bicycle to comply with existing technical regulations, which resulted in great freedom during the design process. This paper details how OptiStruct Optimisation tools were used to help generate efficient lightweight solutions for the design of complex carbon fibre components. Free-size optimisation was used to generate laminate boundaries, ply thicknesses and fibre directions, which met stress and displacement requirements. Physical testing carried out on manufactured parts highlighted the accuracy of the FE models and demonstrated the advantages of incorporating OptiStruct Optimisation tools in the design process.

The Use of MBD Modelling Techniques in the Design and Development of a Suspension System

This paper describes the use of Multi-body Dynamics (MBD) modelling techniques in the design and development of a suspension system for a novel autonomous vehicle. The general approach and philosophy is described, whereby MBD techniques are used in conjunction with an independent (parametric) whole vehicle handling simulation. This is supplemented with examples, showing how MotionSolve was used (in tandem with CarSim) to develop the suspension elasto-kinematic geometric properties to meet specific cascaded targets, to optimise a weighing strategy, to predict forces under a variety of quasi-static and dynamic loads, and to estimate response to track inputs.

The Application of Process Automation and Optimisation in the Rapid Development of New Passenger Vehicles at SAIC Motor

As a relatively young automotive company, SAIC Motor has drawn on the expertise of its UK Technical Centre to help in its objective to bring a new range of vehicles to market in an aggressive time frame. CAE has formed an integral part in doing this and the UK technical centre has worked closely with Altair Product Design amongst others to utilise its Engineers’ skills as well as the Hyperworks suite of software. The paper aims to showcase what has been achieved to date, on the Roewe 550 medium car programme - currently on sale in China - and on another current vehicle programme, where processes have been developed further. Several interesting optimisation examples are highlighted in the development of the body structure as well as some key process improvement methodologies which have been jointly developed between SAIC and Altair to streamline the design process.

Rapid Airbag Folding Technique for Side Curtain Airbag

TECOSIM has developed techniques which can shorten the folding & packaging process time to a few hours and still achieve the essential airbag deployment performance. We will present methods which rapidly fold a free mesh and allow for rapid shape changes for a detailed folded model. These methods can significantly reduce the turnaround time to incorporate design changes into the working CAE model for side impact and OOP [Out Of Position] studies. This technology can integrate airbag development further into the virtual world to allow ‘CAE led’ design of airbag profiles, chambers and seam lines to be established early in the design phase and establish a fully folded deployable airbag for all virtual phases.

Delivering World Class Chassis Design

This paper details the extensive use of CAE optimisation technology at ThyssenKrupp Automotive Tallent Chassis Ltd (TKA). There are a number of trends in the automotive business that are presenting great challenges, these include severe cost pressures from OEM’s, platform commonisation and reduced vehicle development cycle time. The use of optimisation is critical for TKA to maintain its competitiveness, this paper deals with more advanced concepts of optimisation by extending into the severely non-linear region of analysis types.

Step Change in Design: Exploring Sixty Stent Design Variations Over Night

Traditionally, computer analysis has been used to verify the structural performance of a proposed stent design. The stent deployment process consists of multiple stages (e.g. crimping, springback, expansion etc.) which is highly non-linear inducing material plasticity and load transfer via component contact. A single structural verification assessment would require a couple of days to compute on a PC. This paper investigates how recent developments in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) and computer hardware combine to facilitate the rapid exploration of many stent design variations. It is demonstrated that by utilising these technologies, over sixty stent design variables can be assessed overnight provides valuable design sensitivity information and an optimum stent geometry configuration. On an example baseline geometry considered the radial stiffness was significantly enhanced with an improvement in structural performance. This represents a step change in the CAE assessment of a stent design.

Simultaneous Robust and Design Optimization of a Knee Bolster

This paper introduces a practical process to simultaneously optimize the robustness of a design and its performance i.e. finds the plateau rather than the peak. The process is applied to two examples, firstly to a composite cantilever beam and then to the design of an automotive knee bolster system whereby the design is optimized to account for different sized occupants, impact locations, material variation and manufacturing variation.

Simulation of Automotive Exhaust Noise Using Fluid Structure Interaction

Modelling the exhaust impingement noise is non trivial exercise. It requires a FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction) simulation. Furthermore, sufficient resolution of the local turbulence, complicated by the varying gas temperature and often complex geometry is necessary. The feasibility of modelling this phenomenon using RADIOSS CFD, a commercial code with both FSI and CAA (Computational Acoustic Analysis) capability has been investigated in this paper. A single skin manifold was modelled with flow boundary conditions obtained from a 1D engine simulation code. Engine test bed measurement in a semi-anechoic cell were compared with the prediction, and good correlation achieved. The method adopted provides support at an early stage in the development process.

Simulating the Suspension Response of a High Performance Sports Car

The use of CAE software tools as part of the design process for mechanical systems in the automotive industry is now commonplace. This paper highlights the use of Altair HyperWorks to assess and then optimize the performance of a McLaren Automotive front suspension system. The tools MotionView and MotionSolve are used to build the model and then carry out initial assessments of kinematics and compliance characteristics. Altair HyperStudy is then used to optimize the position of the geometric hard points and compliant bush rates in order to meet desired suspension targets. The application of this technology to front suspension design enables McLaren Automotive to dramatically reduce development time.

Targeting Composite Wing Performance – Optimum Location of Laminate Boundaries

This paper investigates the application of newly available optimization functionality available in OptiStruct to provide design guidance to generate innovative laminate composite solutions. Due to the flexibility of laminate composites, it has great potential to exhibit displacement characteristics that could significantly increase the aerodynamic performance. Free element sizing technology is used to determine concept lay-up solutions. These solutions determine the laminate make-up, thickness and the various laminate boundaries of an aircraft wing covers under multiple loading conditions which meet the required displacement targets whilst also minimising mass. These preliminary studies demonstrate that the technology can successfully achieve displacement targets for multiple load cases. Each analysis study can be completed within minutes and consequently can be utilised as a valuable concept design tool.

UK Niche Vehicle Industry Joins the CAE Fast Lane

0-60 in 3 seconds! That’s fast, but it takes less than a second to be involved in an accident. This paper describes how Kent-based niche sports car manufacturer, Caterham Cars used Simpact and the Altair CAE toolset to help them radically improve the crash safety of their Seven sports car. The RADIOSS non-linear solver within HyperWorks was used to develop a new safety steering system. The project successfully concluded with the new design being certified experimentally under ECE-R12 and approved by the VCA.

Development of a Wingbox Rib for a Passenger Jet Aircraft using Design Optimization and Constrained to Traditional Design and Manufacture Requirements

The application of optimization technology is becoming increasingly widespread throughout the aviation industry, exploiting the potential to design lighter aircraft. This paper details the application of optimization techniques to reduce the mass of an aircraft wing component when optimization is used at the design initiation stage of the process. Altair OptiStruct provides an optimization toolkit to determine the most efficient load path for various constraints, then allow the designers to size the components based on the enveloping load cases. Applying this optimization technology into Bombardier existing design process enabled a saving of approximately 10% on the mass of the component.

A New Approach to Optimizing the Clean Side Air Duct Using CFD Techniques

An integrated approach to CFD design optimization is proposed. It consists of taking an initial CAD design, meshing it using HyperMesh, analysing it using Star-CD, parameterising its key features using HyperMorph, and then shape optimizing it using HyperStudy. This approach has been applied here to the shape optimization of the compressor inlet duct of a turbo system.

A Holistic Virtual Design Process Applied to the Development of an Innovative Child Seat Concept

There is a need to minimise product development costs and provide efficient design solutions to maintain competitiveness, so increasingly companies in the Child Restraint System (CRS) industry are turning to Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to enhance the design and development for their products. Graco has worked with Altair Engineering to develop a group 1 CRS using an advanced CAE driven design process. The design process introduces a number of key phases in the design cycle each of which are positioned to maximize the efficiency of the structure and reduce or remove the cost involved in a traditional, iterative ‘test it and see’ approach.

Rapid Design Exploration to Determine Feasible FPSO and Spar Systems

The riser design process is well established and uses verified simulation tools to predict response to environmental loading. Design optimization is an established technology which has been widely used in other industry sectors including aerospace and automotive. Riser systems show inherently non-linear sensitivity to applied loading and parametric changes. For this reason response surface methods are required for optimization. The paper discusses two example riser configuration design problems and describes integration of Altair HyperWorks design optimization technology with the existing design process. The optimization proved to be efficient and repeatable. The designs produced for each configuration proved to be strong improvements over the baseline starting points and the wealth of information on sensitivity provided deeper understanding of the factors influencing design performance.

Development of a Lightweight SUV Frame Concept

The lightweight SUV frame project was a research initiative with the key objective to reduce the baseline frame structure's mass by 25% by applying concept design optimization upfront.

mmWave Axial Choke Horn Antenna with Lens

Millimeter wave (mmWave) antennas operate in the band of frequencies where the wavelength is between 10mm and 1mm. The frequency range for mmWave application is thus constrained to be greater than 30 GHz, but less than 300 GHz. Various applications exist in this frequency range, including wide band telecommunication and imaging applications for security screening. This white paper demonstrates how an antenna was designed for communication at 60 GHz.

FEKO for Rotorcraft

FEKO is well-suited for rotorcraft electromagnetic applications including antenna placement, rotor blade modulation, co-site interference, electromagnetic interference (EMI), electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and radar cross section (RCS).

mmWave Substrate Lens Antenna for Wire Communications

Wu et. al. [1] proposed designs for both single and multi-beam mmWave circularly polarized substrate lens antennas in 2001. This white paper demonstrates these designs via FEKO modeling.

A Thin, Low-Profile Antenna Using a Novel High Impedance Ground Plane

The size of the antenna for a given application does not depend purely on the technology but on the laws of physics where the antenna size with respect to the wavelength has the predominant influence on the radiation characteristics.

MRI Birdcage Coil Design

An application note on the modelling of a 7T MRI birdcage headcoil in FEKO.

Two Arm Spiral Antenna

A two-arm self-complementary archimedean spiral antenna is modelled in FEKO to determine its wideband behaviour.

Microstrip Bandpass Filter

A microstrip bandpass filter is modeled in FEKO to determine its S-parameters.

Automotive Radars - Antenna Design, Integration & Channel Modeling

One of the key enabling technologies in the development of autonomous vehicles is driving aid radar systems. We will highlight some of the typical challenges experienced during the design and integration of automotive radars, as well as the applicable numerical solutions that FEKO offers. Radar channel modelling with WinProp is also presented.

Designing an LTE Base Station Antenna with the Finite Arrays Method

This white paper demonstrates how an LTE base station antenna may be modeled with the finite arrays (DGFM) method in FEKO.

Horn-Fed Reflector Antenna

A horn-fed parabolic reflector is modeled in FEKO to determine its radiation pattern.

Radar Applications in Everyday Life

New areas for radar applications are the automotive sector, building security, medical devices, civil engineering, or geophysics, to name a few. This white paper digs a little deeper into radar use in everyday life.

Reflector Antenna with Circular Horn Feed — Analyzed with Ray Launching Geometrical Optics (RL-GO)

FEKO includes several computational methods for the efficient analysis of different antenna types. Here, a large problem is solved with the full-wave and asymptotic methods. Model decomposition is used to simulate the problem more efficiently.

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